Monomorium - Alex Wild Photography
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Monomorium minimum

Monomorium minimum

In theory, aphids attract ants for protection against predators and parasites. The effectiveness of the ant defense depends on a number of factors, including the ant species. Judging from the number of parasitized aphid mummies, these Monomorium appear to have done a terrible job. Austin, Texas, USA.

mutualismants and aphidsaphid mummyMonomoriumAphididaeParasitoidsecology